Suggestion: Watch the 10 minutes video tutorial before reading this article
Importing clothes and textiles from China? Keep reading, and learn what you must know about sourcing clothes manufacturers, fabric specifications and design drawings.
We also explain how you can reduce the Minimum Order Quantity (MOQ) requirement and compliance testing costs by streamlining the use of fabrics and colors.
Sourcing Clothing Suppliers in China: What to look for
a. Product Scope
Product focus is the primary factor qualifying potential apparel manufacturers. Clothing factories are specialized in making certain types apparel, which also is reflected on their material subcontractors and machinery.
You’ll get an idea of a supplier product scope by quickly reviewing their website or supplier page on Alibaba or Global Sources.
That said, the business scope, as specified on the supplier’s business license, can be even more telling. Below follows an example:
High-grade fabric weaving, dyeing and finishing; clothing, textile products in the production, processing, sales of the company products, and related products in the acquisition of export business.
We can tell, from the business scope above, that this supplier is an export oriented textile fabric manufacturer.
If there is no mention of ‘production’, ‘manufacturing’ or specific production procedures, the supplier is likely a trader. That category of supplier also tends to include a large number of product categories in its scope.
b. Product Compliance Track Record
Buyers in many markets, mainly the United States and the European Union, must ensure compliance with various product standards and regulations. When it comes to textiles, there is a variety of substance restrictions in place, limiting the content of formaldehyde, lead and AZO dyes – among others.
However, few apparel manufacturers can provide compliance documents (i.e., test reports). Thus making it hard to assess a clothing supplier capability to produce compliant goods.
Instead, compliance documents are far more often held by textile fabrics subcontractors, and overseas buyers, rather than the apparel factory.
That being said, our experience tells us that the risk of non-compliance (i.e., a product that fails compliance testing) is low, when importing clothes from China.
There is, however, one exception. Coated fabrics. Buyers of waterproof fabrics with TPU or PVC coating must take extra care, as the coating may contain phthalates and other restricted substances.
c. Quality Management System and Social Compliance
A Quality Management System (i.e, ISO 9001:2008) is implemented in the supplier’s production flow to track and limit defects.
Among clothing manufacturers, far from all suppliers hold QMS certification. Clothes importers are wise to not rely on the suppliers to manage quality, but shall implement their own quality assurance procedures.
Social compliance has been a hot topic in the industry in recent years. Especially since the collapse of Rana plaza in April 2013. That occurred in Dhaka, Bangladesh, not in China. I’d also dare to say the (overall) degree of workplace safety is higher in China, compared to other Asian manufacturing destinations.
That being said, a supplier with social compliance audit reports at hand are to be preferred. Look for suppliers with BSCI (Business Social Compliance Initiative) and Sedex certification.
What to Include in the Techpack
a. Fabric Specifications
Fabric specifications can be based on an existing ‘standard fabric’ or an OEM specification. The latter may result in a vast increase of the lead time, and the MOQ. We’ll back to the MOQ in a bit, but first follows a list of fabric specifications:
- Material / Fiber Composition (i.e., 98% Cotton, 2% Spandex)
- Weight (i.e., 240 gsm)
- Yarn Count (i.e., 40 x 40)
- Yarn Type (i.e., Combed)
- Colors (Pantone or RAL)
- Treatment (i.e., Flame Retardance)
- Coating (i.e., PU Coating)
Notice that clothing factories generally procure fabrics from textiles manufacturers. Most clothing suppliers can provide lists of generic cotton and synthethic textiles offered, through their network of subcontractors.
However, if you have specific fabrics requirements (i.e., Bamboo rayon, Organic Cotton or OEKO Tex Standard 100 Fabrics), you should go directly to a textiles manufacturer. That will make it a lot easier to find the right type of fabrics.
The process is best explained in these two articles:
- Importing Bamboo Textiles from China: A Complete Guide
- Importing GOTS Organic Cotton Textiles from China
b. Bill of Materials (Components)
All components must be listed in the bill of materials, and may include everything from fabric pieces to zippers. The quantity of each component, on a per unit basis, must also be specified.
- Seam material
Design elements can be replicated from reference samples, or design drawings. However, limiting yourself to only one of two is unwise. A physical sample provides a much needed reference product for the supplier during the sample development process.
However, design elements must also be communicated as design drawings, which also serves as attachments to sales contracts and other product documentation.
- Reference samples
- Sample photocopies
- Design drawings
The design drawings shall also show the position of washing labels, prints and embroideries, for the sake of reducing the risk of misunderstandings.
d. Size Table
A size table lists dimensions for all sizes. This is a complement to the design drawing, on which the various measurements are to be specified (i.e., chest width and length). The following measurements may be included:
- Collar (Front)
- Collar (Back)
- Shoulder Width
All print and embroidery files must be provided in either .ai or .eps format. Include the following:
- Washing Labels
Techpackaer.com further explains why the Techpack is critical when outsourcing apparel production to Chinese, and other Asian, manufacturers.
Minimum Order Quantity (MOQ)
When importing clothes from China, the MOQ is usually set at around 500 to 1000 pcs per product. There is a reason for this. Clothing manufacturers must purchase a certain quantity from the textile fabrics and component suppliers.
This quantity requirement is then reflected on the MOQ the clothing manufacturer must set.
Clothing suppliers are not only setting MOQ requirements per product (i.e., design), but also per color, fabric and size. Hence, clothing importers must request the following MOQs from prospective apparel makers:
- MOQ per Fabric
- MOQ per SKU
- MOQ per Color
- MOQ per Size
For further clarification of how the MOQ is structured, an example follows below:
- MOQ per Fabric: 1000 pcs (Set by subcontractor)
- MOQ per SKU: 500 pcs (Indirectly by subcontractor)
- MOQ per Color: 500 pcs (Set by subcontractor)
- MOQ per Size: 250 pcs (Set by Clothes supplier)
Clothing suppliers are generally more willing to offer a lower MOQ when it’s in their own control to do so. As we see in the list above, the SKU MOQ is often based on the MOQ per color.
The latter is in turn set by the fabrics supplier, rather than the clothing factory.
This is even more obvious when we look at the Size MOQ, for which the supplier can afford to be more flexible. This also explains why a lower order volume results in a limited material option.
Reducing the MOQ requirement when importing clothing
Now, 500 pcs per SKU is not a terribly large volumes. It’s barely enough to keep a medium sized clothes factory running for more than a couple of hours.
However, most brands are not limited to only one product. Hence, an MOQ requirement of 1000 units per product is multiplied by the number of SKUs in your catalog. A
s such, startup brands and small businesses have the following options:
- Reduce the number of SKUs
- Reuse fabrics and colors on as many SKUs as possible
Option 2 enables the supplier to both satisfy the MOQ requirements set by subcontractors, while offering its overseas buyers a reduced MOQ. As said, Clothes manufacturers can afford to be a bit more flexible when it comes to the processes they manage in house. For example, cutting and sewing.
Yet, expect a reduced volume to result in an increased unit price.
This strategy offers another benefit. Substance testing costs (i.e., REACH and California Proposition 65) are largely based on the number the number of fabrics and colors. Hence, compliance testing costs can be vastly reduced by limiting the number of fabric and colors used to make a collection.
Most countries only require the importer to provide material test reports (if any applicable substance regulations), rather than product specific test reports (with the notable exception of children’s clothing).
Shipping Textiles and Apparel from China
Clothing is a high volume product. As air freight charges quickly run up due to ‘Volumetric charges’, shipping by sea is the only viable mode of transportation – for anything but minor sample deliveries.
Sea freight charges are based on three factors; Incoterm, volume and destination.
For more information on sea freight when importing clothing and textiles from China, read the following articles:
- Shipping Costs When Importing from China – A Complete Guide
- List of Forwarders & Shipping Companies in China: An Overview
- Sea Freight & Shipping from China – The Ultimate Guide
- FCL & LCL shipping from China
- Incoterms and shipping from China
Textiles & Apparel Trade Fairs in Mainland China and Hong Kong
- Location: Hong Kong
- When: January (Fall / Winter) and July (Spring / Summer)
- Bags & Luggage
- Fashion jewelry
- Scarves & Gloves
- Belts & Footwear
- Kids Apparel
- Fabrics, Lace & Trimmings
- Sweater & Knitwear
- Casual Wear
- Down Jacket & Outerwear
- Underwear & Sleepwear
- Swimwear & Beachwear
- Location: Guangzhou (Mainland China)
- When: April/May and October/November
- Men and Women’s Clothing
- Kids’ Wear
- Sports and Casual Wear
- Furs, Leather, Downs & Related Products
- Fashion Accessories and Fittings
- Home Textiles
- Textile Raw Materials & Fabrics
- Carpets & Tapestries
- Office Supplies
- Cases and Bags
- Sports, Travel and Recreation Products
- Location: Hong Kong
- When: January (Fall / Winter) and July (Spring / Summer)
- Ladies’ wear
- Men’s wear
- Babies and children’s wear
- Evening wear
- Costume jewelry
- Inspection, testing, certification & verification services
Do you want to launch your own clothing product?
It can be hard to go from a design drawing to finished product. To help you manage the entire process – from creating a specification, to sampling and quality control – we created a Starter Package for clothing:
a. Clothing Manufacturer Lists
b. Product Specification Templates
c. Clothing Label Samples
d. Tutorials, Video Walkthroughs and Task Lists that guide you step-by-step through the entire process
In addition, you can also book quality inspections, lab testing and shipping directly from the platform. Click here to learn more.